Melt model


Peer-reviewed publications


(80) Allison, I., R. Hock, M. A. King and A. N. Mackintosh, 2018. Future Earth and the Cryosphere. In IUGG book. in press.

(79) Roth, A., R. Hock, T. V. Schuler, P. Bieniek, M. Pelto, A. Aschwanden, 2018. Modeling winter precipitation over the Juneau Icefield, Alaska, using a linear theory of orographic precipitation model. Frontiers in Earth Science. accepted.

(78) Huss, M. and R. Hock, 2018. Global-scale hydrological response to future glacier mass loss. Nature Climate Change, 8, 135140. doi:10.1038/s41558-017-0049-x. pdf

(77) Young, J., A. Arendt, R. Hock and E. Pettit, 2018. The challenge of monitoring glaciers with extreme altitudinal range: Mass-balance reconstruction for Kahiltna Glacier, Alaska. Journal of Glaciology, 1-14. doi:10.1017/jog.2017.80


(76) Hock, R., J. Hutchings and M. Lehning, 2017. Grand Challenges in cryospheric sciences: Towards better predictability of glaciers, snow and sea ice. Frontiers in Earth Sciences. doi: 10.3389/feart.2017.00064. pdf

(75) Kienholz, C., R. Hock, M. Truffer, P. Bieniek, R. Lader, 2017. Mass balance of Black Rapids Glacier Mass balance evolution of Black Rapids Glacier, Alaska, 1980-2100, and its implications for surge recurrence. Frontiers in Earth Science. 10.3389/feart.2017.00056. pdf.

(74) Wastlhuber, R., R. Hock, Ch. Kienholz and M Braun, 2017. Glacier changes in the Susitna basin, Alaska, USA, (1951–2015) using GIS and remote sensing methods. Remote Sensing, 9(5), 478, doi:10.3390/rs9050478. pdf

(73) Østby, T. I., Schuler, T. V., Hagen, J. O., Hock, R., Kohler, J., and Reijmer, C. H., 2017. Diagnosing the decline in climatic mass balance of glaciers in Svalbard over 1957–2014, The Cryosphere, 11, 191-215, doi:10.5194/tc-11-191-2017. pdf


(72) Kienholz, C., Hock, R., Truffer, M., Arendt, A.A. and Arko, S., 2016. Geodetic mass balance of surge‐type Black Rapids Glacier, Alaska, 1980–2001–2010, including role of rockslide deposition and earthquake displacement. Journal of Geophysical Research: Earth Surface 121, 2358 – 2380, doi:10.1002/2016JF0038. pdf

(71) Ziemen, Z.A., R. Hock, A. Aschwanden, C. Khroulev, C. Kienholz, A. Melkonian, J. Zhang, 2016. Modeling the evolution of the Juneau Icefield between 1971 and 2100 using the Parallel Ice Sheet Model (PISM). Journal of Glaciology, 62(231), 199-214. doi:10.1017/jog.2016.13. pdf


(70) Huss, M. and R. Hock. A new model for global glacier change and sea-level rise. Frontiers in Earth Sciences 3:54, doi: 10.3389/feart.2015.00054.

(69) Kienholz, C., S. J. Herreid, J. L. Rich, A. Arendt, R. Hock, E. W. Burgess, 2015. Derivation and analysis of a complete modern-date glacier inventory for Alaska and northwest Canada. Journal of Glaciology, 61(227), doi:10.3189/2015JoG14J230. pdf.

(68) McNabb, R. Hock, M. Huss, 2015. Variations in Alaska tidewater glacier frontal ablation, 1985-2013. J. Geophys. Res. Earth Surf., 120, 1-17. doi:10.1002/2014F003276. pdf.

(67) Truessel, B., M. Truffer, R. Hock, R. Motyka, M. Huss and J. Zhang, 2015. Run-away thinning of the low elevation Yakutat Glacier and its sensitivity to climate change. J. Glaciol. 61(225), doi:10.3189/2015JoG14J125. pdf.


(66) Osmanoglu, B., F. J. Navarro, R. Hock, M. I. Corcuera, and M. Braun, 2014. Surface velocity and mass balance of Livingston Island ice cap, Antarctica. The Cryosphere 8, 1807-1823, doi:10.5194/tc-8-1105-2014. pdf

(65) Hock, R., 2014. Glaciers and Climate Change. in Freedman B. (ed.) Handbook of Global Environmental Pollution: Global Environmental Change. Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. pp. 205-210. doi 10.1007/978-94-007-5784-4_130. pdf

(64) Pfeffer, T, A. Arendt, A Bliss, T Bolch, J. G. Cogley, A S. Gardner, J. O. Hagen, R. Hock, G. Kaser, C. Kienholz, E. S. Miles, Geir Moholdt, N. Moelg, F. Paul V. Radic, P. Rastner, B, H. Raup, J Rich, M J. Sharp and the Randolph Consortium, 2014. The Randolph Glacier Inventory: a globally complete inventory of glaciers. Journal of Glaciology 60(221), doi:10.3189/2014JoG13J176. pdf

(63) Bliss, A., R. Hock, V. Radić, 2014. Global response of glacier runoff for the twenty-first century. Journal of Geophysical Research Earth Surf., 119, doi: 10.1002/2013JF002931.pdf

(62) Kienholz, C., Rich, J. L., Arendt, A. A., and Hock, R. 2014. A new method for deriving glacier centerlines applied to glaciers in Alaska and northwest Canada, The Cryosphere, 8, 503-519, doi:10.5194/tc-8-503-2014. pdf

(61) Das, I., R. Hock, E. Berthier and C. S. Lingle, 2014. 21st century increase in glacier mass loss in the Wrangell Mountains, Alaska from airborne laser altimetry and satellite stereo imagery. Journal of Glaciology, 60(220), doi:10.3189/2014JoG13J119. pdf

(60) McNabb, R. and R. Hock, 2014. Alaska tidewater glacier terminus positions, 1948­2012. Journal of Geophysical Research, Earth Surf. 119, DOI: 10.1002/2013JF002915. pdf

(59) Radic V. and R.Hock, 2014. Glaciers in the Earth’s hydrological cycle. Assessments of glacier mass and runoff changes on global and regional scales. Survey of Geophysics 35, 813-837.  doi:10.1007/s10712-013-9262-y. pdf


(58) Kienholz, C., R. Hock and A. Arendt, 2013. A new tool for semi-automatic delineation of glacier flow basins. Journal of Glaciology 59(217), doi: 10.3189/2013JoG12J138. pdf

(57) Jonsell, U., R. Hock and M. Duguay, 2013. Recent air and ground temperature increases at Tarfala Research Station, Sweden. Polar Research 32, 19807, pdf

(56) Gardner, A. S., Moholdt, G., Cogley, J. G., Wouters, B., Arendt, A. A., Wahr, J., Berthier, E., Hock, R., Pfeffer, W. T., Kaser, G., Ligtenberg, S. R. M., Bolch, T., Sharp, M. J., Hagen, J. O., van den Broeke, M. R., and Paul, F. 2013: A Reconciled Estimate of Glacier Contributions to Sea Level Rise: 2003 to 2009, Science 340, doi:10.1126/science1234532. pdf, pdf(suppl.Material)

(55) Radić, V., A. Bliss , A. C. Beedlow, R. Hock, E. Miles and J. G. Cogley, 2013. Regional and global projections of 21st century glacier mass changes in response to climate scenarios from global climate models. Climate Dynamics. doi:10.1007/s00382-013-1719-7. pdf, Figure 5 corrected

(54) Østby, T. I., T. V. Schuler, J.O. Hagen, R. Hock. and C. H. Reijmer, 2013. The role of subsurface heat exchange: energy partitioning at Austfonna ice cap, Svalbard, over 2004-2008. Annals of Glaciology 54(63), 229-240(12), doi: pdf

(53) Bliss, A., R. Hock and J. G. Cogley, 2013. A new inventory of mountain glaciers and ice caps for the Antarctic periphery. Ann. Glaciol., 54(63), 191-199, doi:10.3189/2013AoG63A377. pdf

(52) Osmanoglu, B., M. Braun, R. Hock, F. J. Navarro, 2013. Surface velocity and ice discharge of the ice cap on King George Island, Antarctica. Annals of Glaciology 54(63), doi: 10.3189/2013AoG63A517. pdf

(51) Geck, J., R. Hock and M. Nolan, 2013. Geodetic mass balance of glaciers in the central Brooks Range, Alaska, USA, from 1970-2001. Arctic, Antarctic and Alpine Research, 29-38. doi:10.1657/1938-4246-45.1.29. pdf

(50) Hulth, J., C. Rolstad Denby and R. Hock, 2013. Estimating glacier snow accumulation from backward calculation of melt and snowline tracking. Annals of Glaciology 54(62), 111-119. doi: 10.3189/2012AoG62A083. pdf


(49) McNabb, B., R. Hock, S. O'Neel, L.A. Rasmussen, Y. Ahn, H. Conway, S. Herreid, I. Joughin, T. Pfeffer, B. Smith and M. Truffer, 2012. Using surface velocities to infer ice thickness and bed topography: A case study at Columbia Glacier, Alaska. J. Glaciol. 58(212), doi: 10.3189/2012JoG11J249. pdf
(48) Huss, M., R. Hock, A. Bauder and M. Funk. Conventional versus reference-surface mass balance. J. Glaciol., 38(208), 278-286. pdf
(47) Sharp, M., M. Ananicheva, A. Arendt, J-O. Hagen, R. Hock, E. Josberger, R. D. Moore, W., T. Pfeffer and G. J. Wolken, 2012. Mountain Glaciers and ice caps. In: AMAP, 2011. Snow, Water, Ice and Permafrost in the Arctic (SWIPA): Climate Change and the Cryosphere. Arctic Monitoring and Assessment Programme (AMAP), Oslo, Norway. xii + 538 pp. download from AMAP


(46) Cogley, J.G., R. Hock, L.A. Rasmussen, A.A. Arendt, A. Bauder, R.J. Braithwaite, P. Jansson, G. Kaser, M. Möller, L. Nicholson and M. Zemp, 2011. Glossary of Glacier Mass Balance and Related Terms, IHP-VII Technical Documents in Hydrology No. 86, IACS Contribution No. 2, UNESCO-IHP, Paris. 114pp. pdf

(45) Möller, M., R. Finkelnburg, M. Braun, R. Hock, U. Jonsell, V. A. Pohjola, D. Scherer, and C. Schneider, 2011. Climatic mass balance of the ice cap Vestfonna, Svalbard: A spatially distributed assessment using ERA-Interim and MODIS data, J. Geophys. Res., 116, F03009, doi:10.1029/2010JF001905. pdf

(44) Sicart, J. E., R. Hock, P. Ribstein, J. P.Chazarin, M. Litt and E Ramirez, 2011. Analysis of the seasonal variations of mass balance and meltwater discharge of Tropical Zongo Glacier by application of a distributed energy balance model. Journal of Geophysical Research. 116, D13105, doi:10.1029/2010JD015105. pdf

(43) Rasmussen, L. A., Conway, H., R. M. Krimmel and R. Hock, 2011. Surface mass balance, thinning, and iceberg production, Columbia Glacier, Alaska, 1948-2007. Journal of Glaciology 57(203), 431-440. pdf

(42) Radić, V.  and R. Hock. 2011. Regional differentiated contribution of mountain glaciers and ice caps to future sea-level rise. Nature Geoscience, 4, 91-94, DOI: 10.1038/NGEO1052.pdf pdf (suppl.material)
(Paper is featured in News and Views Nature Geoscience 4, 71-72. pdf)


(41) Sicart, J.E., R.Hock, P. Ribstein and J. P.Chazarin, 2010. Sky long-wave radiation on tropical Andean glaciers: parameterization and sensitivity to atmospheric variables. Journal of Glaciology 56(199), 854-860. pdf

(40) Huss, M., R. Hock, A. Bauder and M. Funk, 2010. 100-year glacier mass changes in the Swiss Alps linked to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation. Geophys. Res. Lett., 37, L10501, doi:10.1029/2010GL042616, 2010. pdf

(39) Radić, V., and R. Hock, 2010. Regional and global volumes of glaciers derived from statistical upscaling of glacier inventory data, J. Geophys. Res., 115, F01010, doi:10.1029/2009JF001373. pdf


(38) Sedlar, J and R. Hock. 2009.Testing longwave radiation parameterizations under clear and overcast skies at Storglaciären, Sweden. The Cryosphere. 3, 75-84. pdf
(37) Hock, R., M. de Woul, V. Radić and M. Dyurgerov, 2009. Mountain glaciers and ice caps around Antarctica make a large sea-level rise contribution, Geophys. Res. Lett. 36, L07501, doi:10.1029/2008GL037020. pdf, Supplementary material
(36) Arendt, A., S. B. Luthcke, R. Hock, 2009. GRACE Mascon Estimates of Glacier Changes in the St. Elias Mountains: Can Mass Balance Models Explain Recent Trends? Annals of Glaciology, 50(50), 148-154. pdf
(35) Harrison, W. D., Cox, L. H., R. Hock, R.S. March and E.C. Petit, 2009. Implications for the health of a glacier from comparison of conventional and reference-surface balances. Annals of Glaciology, 50(50), 25-30. pdf

(34) Sicart, J.E., R. Hock and D. Six, 2008. Glacier melt, air temperature and energy balance in different climates: Bolivian Tropics, French Alps and northern Sweden. Journal of Geophysical Research, 113, D24113, doi:10.1029/2008JD010406. pdf
(33) Radić, V., R. Hock and J. Oerlemans, 2008. Analysis of scaling methods in deriving future volume evolutions of valley glaciers. Journal of Glaciology, 54(187), 601–612. pdf
(32) Schuler, T.V., P. Crochet, R. Hock, M. Jackson, I. Barstad, T. Johannesson, 2008. Distribution of snow accumulation on Svartisen ice cap, Norway, assessed by a model of orographic precipitation. Hydrological Processes, 22, 3998-4008, DOI: 10.1002/hyp.7073. pdf
(31) Huss, H., A. Bauder, M. Funk, R. Hock, 2008. Determination of the seasonal mass balance of four Alpine glaciers since 1865. J. Geophysical Res. 113, F01015, doi:10.1029/2007JF000803, 2008. pdf
(30) Reijmer, C. H. and R. Hock, 2008. A distributed energy balance model including a multi-layer sub-surface snow model. Journal of Glaciology. 54, No. 184, 61-72. pdf

(29) Hock, R., D. Kootstra and C. Reijmer, 2007. Deriving glacier mass balance from accumulation area ratio on Storglaciären, Sweden. IAHS Publ. 318, 163-170. pdf
(28) Braun, M, T. Schuler, R. Hock, I. Brown, and M. Jackson, 2007. Comparison of remote sensing derived glacier facies maps with distributed mass balance modeling at Engabreen, northern Norway. IAHS Publ. 318, 126-134. pdf
(27) Konya, K., R. Hock, and R. Naruse, 2007. Temperature lapse rates and surface energy balance at Storglaciären, northern Sweden. IAHS Publ. 318. 186-194. pdf
(26) Hock R., V. Radić and M. de Woul, 2007. Climate sensitivity of Storglaciären – An intercomparison of mass balance models using ERA-40 reanalysis and regional climate model data. Ann. Glaciol. 46, 342-348. pdf
(25) Radić. V, R. Hock and J.Oerlemans. 2007. Volume-area scaling vs flowline modelling in glacier volume projections. Ann. Glaciol. 46, 234-240. pdf
(24) Huss, M, A. Bauder, M. Werder, M. Funk and R. Hock. 2007. Glacier-dammed lake outburst events of Gornersee, Switzerland. Journal of Glaciology. 53(181), 189-200. pdf

(23) Radic, V. and R. Hock. 2006. Modeling future glacier mass balance and volume changes using ERA-40 reanalysis and climate models: A sensitivity study at Storglaciären, Sweden, Journal of Geophysical Research, 111, F03003, doi:10.1029/2005JF000440. pdf
(22) de Woul, M., R. Hock, M. Braun, T. Thorsteinsson, T. Jóhannesson, S. Halldorsdottir, 2006.  Firn layer effect on glacial runoff – A case study at Hofsjökull, Iceland. Hydrological Processes 20, 2171-2185. DOI:10.1002/hyp.6201. pdf

(21) de Woul, M. and R. Hock, 2005.  Static mass balance sensitivity of Arctic glaciers and ice caps using a degree-day approach. Annals of Glaciology 42, 217-224. pdf
(20) Schuler, T., R. Hock, M. Jackson, H. Elvehøy, M. Braun, I. Brown and J.-O. Hagen, 2005. Distributed mass balance and climate sensitivity modelling of Engabreen, Norway. Annals of Glaciology 42,395-401. pdf
(19) Schuler, T., K. Melvold, J.-O. Hagen and R. Hock, 2005. Assessing the future evolution of meltwater intrusions into a mine below Gruvefonna, Svalbard. Annals of Glaciology 42, 262-268. pdf
(18) Hock, R. and B. Holmgren, 2005. A distributed energy balance model for complex topography and its application to Storglaciären, Sweden. Journal of Glaciology 51(172), 25-36. pdf
(17) Hock, R. and P. Jansson, 2005. Modelling glacier hydrology. In: Anderson, M. G. and J. McDonnell (Eds.). Enzyclopedia of Hydrologcial Sciences, John Wiley & Sons, Ltd, hichester. Vol. 4, 2647-2655. pdf
(16) Hock, R., 2005. Glacier melt: A review on processes and their modelling. Progress in Physical Geography 29(3), 362-391. pdf
(15) Hock, R., P. Jansson and L. Braun, 2005. Modelling the response of mountain glacier discharge to climate warming. In: Huber, U. M., M. A. Reasoner and H. Bugmann (Eds.): Global Change and Mountain Regions - A State of Knowledge Overview. Springer, Dordrecht. 243-252. pdf

2004 and before
(14) Braun, M. and R. Hock, 2004. Spatially distributed surface energy balance and ablation modelling on the ice cap of King George Island (Antarctica). Global and Planetary Change 42(1-4), 45-58. doi 10.1016/j.gloplacha.2003.11.010. pdf
(13) Jonsell, U., R. Hock and B. Holmgren, 2003. Spatial and temporal albedo variations on Storglaciären, Sweden. Journal of Glaciology 49(164), 59-68. pdf
(12) Hock, R., 2003. Temperature index melt modelling in mountain regions. Journal of Hydrology 282(1-4), 104-115. doi:10.1016/S0022-1694(03)00257-9. pdf
(11) Jansson, P., R. Hock and T. Schneider, 2003. The concept of glacier water storage - a review. Journal of Hydrology 282(1-4), 116-129. doi:10.1016/S0022-1694(03)00258-0. pdf
(10) Hock, R., M. Johansson, P. Jansson and L. Bärring, 2002. Modelling the climate conditions for re-glaciation of cirques in Rassepautasjtjåkka massif, northern Sweden. Arctic, Antarctic and Alpine Research 34(1), 3-11. pdf
(9)   Schuler, T, U. Fischer, R. Sterr, R. Hock and H. Gudmundson, 2002. Comparison of modeled water input and measured discharge prior to a release event: Unteraar­gletscher, Bernese Alps, Switzerland. Nordic Hydrology 33 (1), 27-46. pdf
(8)   Schneeberger, C., O. Albrecht, H. Blatter, M. Wild, and R. Hock, 2001. Modelling the response of glaciers to a doubling in atmospheric CO2: a case study on Storglaciären, northern Sweden. Climate Dynamics 17, 825-834. pdf
(7)   Hock, R., 1999. A distributed temperature index ice and snow melt model including potential direct solar radiation. Journal of Glaciology 45(149), 101-111. pdf
(6)   Hock, R. and H. Jensen, 1999. Mass balance computations using kriging interpolation. Geografiska Annaler 81A(4), 611-619. pdf
(5)   Hock, R., A. Iken and A. Wangler, 1999. Tracer experiments and borehole observations in the overdeepening of Aletschgletscher, Switzerland. Annals of Glaciology 28, 253-260. pdf
(4)   Hock, R. and Ch. Noetzli, 1997. Areal mass balance and discharge modelling of Storglaciären, Sweden. Annals of Glaciology 24, 211-217. pdf
(3)   Hock, R. and B. Holmgren, 1996. Some aspects of energy balance and ablation of Storglaciären, northern Sweden. Geografiska Annaler 78A (2-3), 121-131. pdf
(2)   Braun, L.N., M. Aellen, M. Funk, R. Hock, M. Rohrer, U. Steinegger, G. Kappenberger and H. Müller-Lemans, 1994. Measurement and simulation of high alpine water balance components in the Linth-Limmern head watershed (north­eastern Switzerland). Zeitschrift für Gletscherkunde und Glazialgeologie30, 161-185. pdf
(1)   Hock, R. and R. LeB. Hooke, 1993. Evolution of the internal drainage system in the lower part of Storglaciären, Sweden. Geological Society of America Bulletin 105, 537-546. pdf

Other peer-reviewed publications

Huss, M., Hock, R., Bauder, A. and Funk, M., 2010. Reply to the Comment of Leclercq et al. on “100-year mass changes in the Swiss Alps linked to the Atlantic Multidecadal Oscillation”. The Cryosphere Discuss., 4, 2587-2592.



PhD thesis

Hock, R., 1998. Modelling of glacier melt and discharge. Diss. ETHZ 12430, Zürcher Geographische Schriften, 70, ISBN 3-906148-18-1, 140 pp. pdf

Text book chapter

Grust, K. and R. Hock, 2004. Gletscherabfluss (Glacier discharge). In: Käss, W. (Ed.): Geohydrologische Markierungstechnik (Tracing Techniques in Geohydrology). 2. edition. Lehrbuch der Hydrologeologie Vol. 9. Gebrueder Bornträger, Berlin, Stuttgart, 428-445 pdf


(3) Marks, D., R. Hock, M. Hayashi, , M. Lehning, R. Gurney (eds.), 2009. Hydrology in Mountain Regions: Observations, Processes and Dynamics, IUGG Symposium HS1003, IAHS Publication 326.
(2) Hock, R., G. Flowers, T. Johannesson (eds.), 2008. Glaciers in watershed and global hydrology. Hydrological Processes 22.
(1) Hock, R., G. Rees, M. Williams and E. Ramirez (eds.), 2006. Contribution from glaciers and snow cover to runoff from the mountains in different climates. Hydrological Processes 20(10).

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Last update: Feb 2018